v A target population. The population or group of people that the programme intends to benefit.
v Academic enrichment programmes (including pre-school enrichment). Academic enrichment programmes introduce young children and youth to the skills necessary for success in school and are aimed at increasing the likelihood of academic success (Krug et al., 2002).
v Adolescent. A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity;
v a teenager.
v Child. A person between birth and puberty.
v Child abuse. The physical, emotional or sexual mistreatment of children.
Cognitive treatment for behavioural disorders
in children. Cognitive behavioural therapy
involves providing information and advice to parents on child
behaviour and how to resolve behavioural
techniques. These can involve individual behavioural
therapy, group therapy or the use of such media as computers, leaflets, books
and audio-or video-tapes (
v Collective violence. Collective violence is the instrumental use of violence by people who identify themselves as members of a group against another group or set of individuals, in order to achieve political, economic or social objectives. It is subdivided into three categories, each suggesting possible motives for the violent acts: (a) Collective violence committed to advance a particular social agenda includes, for instance, crimes of hate committed by organized groups, terrorist acts and mob violence; (b) politically motivated violence includes wars and related violent conflicts, terrorist acts and state violence against groups in the country; (c) economically motivated violence includes attacks by larger groups with the purpose of disrupting economic activity, denying access to essential services, or creating economic division and fragmentation.
v Community based campaigns. These use participatory methods to develop and enact community campaigns for the prevention of violence (e.g. involving community members in organizing marches or demonstrations, creating local theatre productions highlighting issues around violence, development of community support or action groups that may campaign for legal changes). Community campaigns may target certain parts of a community (e.g. young people) and can take the form of small local programmes; however they may also be connected to large national campaigns (Maciak et al., 1999; PAHO, 2000).
v Community empowerment interventions. These aim to address some of the underlying causes of violence (e.g. poverty or inequalities between man and women). Interventions often involve several elements running at the same time, such as education and skills training of individual groups, income-generating projects and campaigns to highlight the problem of violence (Schuler et al., 1998; Sullivan & Bybee, 1999).
v Community Participation. People’s involvement in decision-making about what should be done and how; for example, in the implementation of a programme, sharing its benefits, and in the evaluation of a programme. The degree to which a community participates in an intervention is often used as an indicator of programme acceptance.
v Community risk factor. Social relationships such as schools, neighborhoods and workplaces also influence violence. Risk factors may include the level of unemployment, population density, mobility, and the existence of a local drug or gun trade.
v Community violence. Includes violence between unrelated individuals, who may or may not know each other, and generally, although not exclusively, occurs outside the home. This includes youth violence, random acts of violence, rape or sexual assault by strangers, and violence in institutional settings such as schools, workplaces, prisons and nursing homes.
v Conflict resolution and anger management. Conflict resolution interventions include education and training to provide insight into violent situations such as: the conflict cycle and the dynamics of a fight; violence avoidance versus confrontation; assertiveness skills and how to express anger without fighting; problem solving and communication skill; empathy and perspective-taking. Methods used to deliver these interventions may include teachers, community workers, peer educators, peer mediators or multimedia systems (e.g. interactive computer programmes). Anger management programmes are based on a similar design, and tend to be targeted towards people with an existing problem with anger (Durant et al., 2001)
v Conflict resolution for child minders of pre-school children. Child care teachers of pre-school children and their parents are taught skills in self awareness, cultural sensitivity, violence intervention for young children, disciplining children, communication and stress reduction techniques (Stevhn et al., 2000).
v Conflict resolution interventions. include education and training to provide insight into violent situations such as: the conflict cycle and the dynamics of a fight; violence avoidance versus confrontation; assertiveness skills and how to express anger without fighting; problem solving and communication skills;empathy and perspective-taking. Methods used to deliver these interventions may include teachers, community workers, peer educators, peer mediators or multimedia systems (e.g. interactive computer programmes). Anger management programmes are based on a similar design, and tend to be targeted towards people with an existing problem with anger (Durant et al., 2001).
v Cost-Effectiveness. Sometimes referred to as economic efficiency, is a measure of the cost in resources that is incurred in achieving results. It is determined by the balance between what was put in (in time, manpower, equipment, etc. or their monetary equivalent) and what the results/outputs were. Something that is cost-effective achieves relatively high gains for relatively low costs.
v Day care. Day care refers to the provision of care for pre-school age children (aged 0-4 years old), so that their parents can go out to work (Olds et al., 1997).
v District. Zone; of certain areas of towns
v Donor. One that contributes something, such as money, to a cause or fund.
v Educational interventions. Educational interventions for the prevention of interpersonal violence are aimed at strengthening the educational level of individuals.
v Effectiveness. The extent to which a specific intervention, procedure, regimen or service, when deployed in the field, does what it is intended to do for a defined population (Last, 1983).
v Efficiency. The extent to which resources (financial, human, physical or time) that are used to provide a specific intervention or service of known efficacy and effectiveness are minimized (Last, 1983).
v Empowerment. Involves developing community capacity to gain control over problems and to build social capital. Examples include developing community leadership and efforts to enhance community communication and support networks. Organizational empowerment aims to enhance the capacity of organizations that work to promote the empowerment of less advantaged groups. Community and organizational empowerment programmes may use methods similar to many community programmes (Kar et al., 1999).
v Evaluation. A process that attempts to determine as systematically and objectively as possible the rel-evance, effectiveness and impact of activities in the light of their objectives (Last, 1983). Programme evaluation includes the phases of pre-intervention needs assessment; formative (or process-) assessment; and summative (or outcomes) assessment.
v Experimental Design. Usually exhibits random sampling with experimental and control groups. In evaluation research, it is often impossible to achieve such an assignment of subjects; a quasi- experimental design is used (i.e. a lack of random assignment) rather than forego evaluation.
v Family therapy and additional support for at-risk families. Families identified as being at risk for child abuse (where one child may have already been abused) may receive additional social support and family therapy. Examples of these interventions include training to improve the communication and protective skills of mothers, following the removal of an abusive male partner. The aim of these programmes is to reduce child abuse and promote family wellbeing (Jinich & Litrownik, 1999).
v Good Practices. “Good” or “promising” practices refer to programmes that have met some but not all of the criteria in order to be considered a best practice programme.
v Higher/Vocational Training. These are post-secondary school interventions that provide vocational training. They are aimed at providing young people with marketable skills that will help them to find employment.
v Home-school partnership programmes to promote parental involvement. These interventions aim at linking the interests of families and teachers in ensuring children’s success at school. They may involve schools-based skills training accompanied by efforts to make parents more sensitive to their children’s needs and opportunities; and better able to provide support to their children and those who teach their children(US Department of Health and Human Services, 2001).
v Home visits, care groups, services. Interventions involving home visits usually involve prenatal and/or postnatal visits by health care professionals, para-professionals or volunteers who provide education, training and support in parenting skills. The purpose of home-visiting can vary and may include identifying and treating maternal depressing, promoting breast-feeding and vaccination, providing care for common health problems, education on hazards in the home for young children, and identifying and providing support for families considered at high risk for abusing their children. Support and referral can also be given for intimate partner violence, and home visiting can be used for the prevention of elder abuse through assistance, support, and advice on care giving (Olds et al., 1997).
v Homicide. The killing of one person by another.
v Hotlines. Hotlines include telephone help lines that provide varied information, counselling, support and advice for people who have experienced or are still experiencing child abuse, domestic violence, sexual assault, rape or violent crimes. Hotlines may often only deal with one particular form of violence (e.g. child abuse, intimate partner violence) (Wolfe & Jaffe, 1999).
v Income level. The target population's income relative to that of the country as a whole. Low income: Little or no employment within the household. The employed involved in unskilled and/or seasonal labour at or below minimum wage. Middle income: Stable employment within the household. The income is sustainable and earnings are above minimum wage. High income: Clearly affluent lifestyles. Family owns at least one home and a vehicle. Employed involved in professional or business labour. Mixed: Families represents a mix of low income, mixed income and high income.
v Individual counselling and social casework. Individual counselling includes individual
v psychotherapy, counselling and social casework which combines these with close supervision of the target individual and coordinated social services (US Department of Health and Human Services 2001)
v Individual risk factor. Personal history and biological factors which influences how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or a perpetrator of violence.
v International. Relating to, or involving two or more nations; Extending across or transcending national boundaries.
v Interpersonal Violence. As distinguished from self directed and organized violence, violence between family members and intimate violence is that occurring between family members and intimate partners, usually, though not always, taking place inside the home. This category includes child abuse and neglect, intimate partner violence* and elder abuse. and violence between acquaintances and strangers that is not intended to further the aims of any formally defined group or cause, includes youth violence, random acts of violence, rape or sexual assault by acquaintance or strangers and violence in institutional settings such as schools, workplaces, prisons and nursing homes.
v Intervention. Interventions are sets of actions and decisions structured in such a way that their successful implementation would lead to clearly identifiable outcomes and benefits.
v Life Skills Approach. Life skills training for violence prevention includes peace building and education for development, as well as training on anger management, conflict resolution, decision-making and critical thinking, and coping with stress and self-management moral development (UNICEF 2003, Krug et al., 2002).
v Local. Belonging to or characteristic of a particular locality or neighborhood; within a restricted geographical area, up to a certain mileage maximum.
v Media campaigns. Community-wide public information campaigns for the prevention of interpersonal violence aim to increase knowledge, raise awareness and change attitudes and violent behaviour at community level by giving educational messages to the community via mass media (e.g. television, radio, posters, internet, newspapers). Some initiatives have incorporated messages within popular radio or television dramas (Muirhead et al., 2001)
v Media campaign may be directed at interpersonal violence in general, or at child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence and elder abuse.
v Mentoring. Mentoring based interventions aim to help young people develop non-violent, pro-social skills by providing at-risk individuals the opportunity to develop a supporting relationship with someone who can act as a possible role model (Krug et al., 2002).
v National. Of or relating to or belonging to a nation or country; limited to or in the interests of a particular nation.
v Nature and level of intervention and prevention. Whether the interventions are targeted at one or more levels of the ecological model (individual, relationship, community, society), and whether the interventions are at the primary or secondary level of prevention.
v Needs Assessment. A systematic method of identifying unmet needs. It may involve one or more methods including epidemiological and qualitative approaches. The information from a needs assessment can be used to identify priorities and inform the development of a programme or services. (Wright, 1998).
v Parent education and home visitation. These interventions may involve working with parents regarded as being high-risk perpetrators of child abuse (e.g. young mothers, single parents, those with a substance misuse problems), or may be targeted at all new parents. Interventions for parent education may be given within a number of settings, for example, within schools or educational settings, during hospital visits, and in the course of home visits.
v Parent skills training. Parent skills training interventions can be universal (e.g. antenatal classes for all new mothers), or selectively targeted at high-risk groups (e.g. young, single mothers) with the aim of preventing child abuse. Training programmes vary and may include education and skills development on care of the infant (e.g. breast-feeding, normal child development, health problems, sources of help) (Coren & Barlow, 2003).
v Parent skills training interventions. Can be universal (e.g. antenatal classes for all new mothers), or selectively targeted at high-risk groups (e.g. young, single mothers) with the aim of preventing child abuse. Training programmes vary and may include education and skills development on care of the infant (e.g. breast-feeding, normal child development, health problems, sources of help (Coren & Barlow, 2003).
v Peer education. Role models or leaders within a peer group are selected to conduct educational talks. The peer educators are usually trained in areas such as substance misuse, conflict resolution skills and sexual health. The peer educators may either take a passive role (e.g. leading by example, informal discussions with peers) or have a more active role (e.g. participating in the design of teaching programmes, teaching or facilitating group work sessions). The intensity of training, continued support and supervision of peer educators can be of variable quality and length (Guiliano, 1994).
v Peer linkage. Peer linkage involves pairing children who have experienced abuse with socially skilled peers in a classroom setting. The paired-off children are then encouraged to share classroom activities and play together, with the socially skilled child providing encouragement and a role model for the neglected child to engage in social activities. The aim of the peer linkage programme is to improve the social functioning of the abused child (Fantuzzo et al, 1996)
v Peer mediation. Peer mediation interventions involve children, young people or adults who are selected as peer leaders and given training in conflict resolution skills. They are then meant to mediate in fights and arguments arising in their peer setting (e.g. schools, workplaces), with the aim of resolving conflicts (PAHO, 2000).
v Peri-urban. Low density housing and road development on the periphery of urban areas, still retaining small areas of rural land within networks of suburban building.
v Perpetrator. To be responsible for; commit: someone who perpetrates wrongdoing
v Personal relationships risk factor. Family, friends, intimate partners and peers may influence the risks of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence, for example, having violent friends may influence whether a young person engages in or becomes a victim of violence.
v Prevention. Violence prevention strategies and programmes are developed to stop violent events from happening (primary prevention), to minimize the harm that occurs once a violent event has taken place (secondary prevention), or to treat and rehabilitate victims and perpetrators to re-adapt to society (tertiary prevention). These strategies may target everyone in a population (universal interventions), or only those people with an enhanced risk of violence (selective interventions), or those individuals and groups that have already demonstrated violent behaviour and/or been victimized (indicated interventions).
v Programme. A programme is a series of interrelated preventive activities, interventions, or projects with a formal set of procedures and features, designed to have the desired outcome of reducing the level of violence.
v Programme characteristics. The common dimensions on which different programmes can be described and compared to one another. Programmes in this sense can be regarded as a specific type of social intervention, varying in terms of scope, complexity, and time frame.
v Programmes modelled on basic military training. The primary aim of the intervention is to instill discipline, and they typically focus upon highly specific personal skills in the area of physical discipline (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2001).
v Probation or parole programmes. Such interventions include probation or parole and meeting with prison inmates to make adolescents aware of the brutality of prison life (Krug et al., 2002)
v Providing incentives for youths at high risk of violence to complete secondary schooling. These interventions identify young people who are considered to be at risk of violence because of academic failure, low academic motivation, family and/ or disciplinary problems and coming from families that receive welfare/ social support. They can involve compensatory education through special tutoring behavioural reinforcement of improved classroom behaviour, and working with parents and their children to strengthen the motivation to attend and do well in school (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2001).
v Protective factors. Factors that reduce the risk of violence or its consequences. An example may be living in a society where there is high social capital and little income inequality.
v Public Health Approach. This approach provides a theoretical rationale for why effective prevention programmes should necessarily be based on evidence. The importance lies in the logic of the approach, defined in four steps: define the problem and assess its magnitude; identify risk factors and causes of violence; develop and test interventions; implement best and good practices widely.
v Reform of institutional settings. Interventions under this category refer to efforts at preventing interpersonal violence by changing institutional setting (e.g. schools. workplaces, hospitals and long term care institutions for the elderly) through appropriate policies, guidelines and protocols.
v Reforming hospitals and long-term care institutions. Interpersonal violence prevention in hospitals and long-term care institutions involves the development of policies, guidelines and protocols designed to prevent the abuse of patients and those that accompany or visit them.
v Regional. Of or relating to a large geographic region.
v Residential programmes in psychiatric or correctional institutes. These interventions are directed at modifying the behaviour, attitudes and insight of individuals within psychiatric or correctional institutes, and may involve individual as well as group psychotherapy and counselling.
v Rights-based campaigns. Community campaigns sometimes base themselves upon international human rights instruments (such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child, or the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women). Such campaigns may focus on equality of rights for groups that are disadvantaged in society (e.g. children, women, the elderly, the disabled), on changing the legal system in a country or region, or on advocacy work with individuals or groups to improve conditions according to existing laws. Some rights based campaigns also have educational programmes to raise awareness of the appropriate issues (Usdin et al., 2000).
v Risk Factor. An attribute or exposure that is associated with an increase in the probability of a specified outcome (e.g. experiencing or perpetrating interpersonal violence). Risk factors include: male gender, young age, alcohol and carrying weapons.
v Rural. Refers to an area with mostly farmland and little human population, or characteristic of farming and country life.
v Self-directed violence. Self-directed violence is subdivided into suicidal behaviour and self-abuse. The former includes suicidal thoughts, attemptedsuicides and completed suicides. Self-abuse, by contrast, includes acts such as self-mutilation.
v Sexual abuse prevention skills training. Intervention in this category include those specifically aimed at preventing sexual abuse by teaching pre-school and school age children personal safety awareness, assertiveness training and practical self-protection skills. Examples include teaching children about their body parts, personal boundaries, which areas are acceptable to be touched (‘good touch, bad touch’), and by whom. They may also involve training to distinguish between surprises and secrets and what to do if they are abused. (Conte,1985; Tutty, 1997; Wurtele et al., 1989).
v School-based anti-bullying interventions. These are aimed at reducing bullying in schools by changing community, family, school and classroom environments. Methods may include raising awareness about bullying; yearly surveys on bullying prevalence; the development of school rules (including disciplinary procedures) for bullying; greater school playground supervision, and the establishment of school committees for bullying prevention. Some programmes also set up parent discussion groups and involve parents or children who are either victims or perpetrators of violence (Stevens et al., 2001).
v School violence prevention curricula. Interventions in this category involve the incorporation of violence-prevention materials into the school curriculum and/or the development of policies to alter high risk features of school settings. Violence prevention classes are of variable intensity and may include anger management, impulse control, empathy development, social skills and conflict resolution. Some curricula also link violence prevention with alcohol and substance misuse prevention, anti-bullying and mental health promotion. Other programmes include multiple components and involve the surrounding community (Orpinas et al, 2000)
v Scope. Whether the programme is deployed locally, nationally or internationally.
v Screening. The systematic application of a test or inquiry to identify individuals at sufficient risk of a specific disorder to benefit from further investigation or direct preventive action (Pencheon et al., 2001).
v Screening for domestic violence. Screening interventions aim to identify women who have experienced domestic violence and provide support and referral to specialist services. Health care professionals in a variety of settings (e.g. emergency departments, antenatal care, primary health care settings) receive training in identifying women who have experienced domestic violence. Some health care settings also use a standard protocol to ask questions and document findings. Screening for elder abuse. These are interventions to identify elder abuse, and involve training health care professionals in emergency departments or primary care settings. Some health care settings also use a standard protocol to ask questions and document findings. The intention is to identify older people who have experienced abuse and provide support and referral to specialist and legal services (Paris et al., 1995).
v Screening for youths at high risk for violence. These interventions involve training health workers to identify and refer youths at high risk for violence, both as perpetrators and as victims (Krug et al., 2002).
v Site or setting. Demographics and the circumstances of that target population. Settings may include schools, health care facilities, old age homes, prisons, workplaces, neighbourhoods, households and other public facilities such as bars and clubs.identify in what settings the programme takes place, such as schools, neighbourhoods, workplaces, old age homes, etc.
v Skills development. At the relationship level, skills development interventions involve teaching people the skills needed to change the behaviour of other people. The examples discussed in this section focus specifically on parents and teachers and their capacity to modify the behaviour of children in their care.
v Skills development interventions. Involve teaching people the skills needed to change the behaviour of other people. involve teaching the cognitive and social skills needed to develop and sustain positive, friendly and cooperative behaviour.
v Skills development programmes. Skills development interventions involve teaching the cognitive and social skills needed to develop and sustain positive, friendly and cooperative behaviour.
v Skills programmes for teenagers (13–18 yr). Educational interventions for teenagers may include multimedia, theatre groups, and classroom discussions facilitated by teachers or violence prevention professionals, and peer support groups, and include efforts to prevent dating violence (Foshee, 1998; Wolfe & Jaffe, 1999).
v Skills programmes for younger children (5-12yr). These include interventions that use education to raise awareness and change attitudes regarding the unacceptability of specific behaviours. They may also include efforts to teach children what to do when domestic violence occurs in the home, and anger management and conflict resolution skills (Wolfe & Jaffe, 1999).
v Social development programmes. Interventions to enhance social development involve strategies directed at reducing antisocial and aggressive behaviour. These include improving competency and social skills with peers and the promotion of behaviour that is positive, friendly and cooperative. Among the more specific areas usually covered are anger management, social problem solving, social perspective taking and moral development (Krug et al., 2002).
v Societal Level. Governments may launch broad programmes to benefit society, which may be aimed at reducing interpersonal violence either directly or indirectly. Examples of society level interventions include:
v • Reduction of income inequality;
v • De-concentrating poverty;
v • Enforcing laws prohibiting the illegal transfer of guns;
v • Strengthening and improving police and judicial systems;
v • Reforming educational job creation programmes for the unemployed. (Krug et al., 2002).
v Societal risk factor. These include economic and social policies that maintain socioeconomic inequalities between people, the availability of weapons, and social and cultural norms such as those around male dominance over women, parental dominance over children, and cultural norms that endorse violence as a normal method to resolve conflicts.
v Socioeconomic status. Usually defined by both objective (i.e. per capita income, educational level, life expectancy), and subjective (i.e. ascribed status, ethnicity, political history) criteria. Usually some index is used to determine socioeconomic status so that measurement/indication can be standardized.
v Socioeconomic variables. Known risk factors for interpersonal violence (for example poverty).
v Stakeholder. One who has a share or an interest, as in an enterprise.
v Strategies and special services to enhance community safety. This category refers to efforts at reducing interpersonal violence through the implementation of community level interventions that address the physical infrastructure, the social fabric, and exposure to risk factors such as alcohol, drugs and firearms. Examples include:
v • Community policing;
v • Police clampdown on gang activities;
v • Reducing the availability of alcohol;
v • After-school programmes;
v • Buying back guns;
v • Increasing the availability and quality of care facilities;
v • Increasing the availability and quality of pre-school enrichment programmes;
v • Providing after-school programmes to extend adult supervision;
v • Improve lighting on dark streets;
v • Installing closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras in high-risk areas;
v • Create safe routes for children and youth. (Krug et al., 2002).
v Surveillance. The ongoing, systematic collection, collation and analysis of data with prompt dissemination of the resulting information to those who need to know, so that an action can result (Last, 1983).
v Sustainability. Sustainability of a programme points to the importance of its implementation and management in a socially, ecologically and economically viable manner, so that it can survive over time.
v Target Population. The group of people for whom an intervention or programme is planned. Identify the populations that the programme aims to benefit in terms of characteristics such as age and sex, and whether they are victims, perpetrators or the general public.
v Training in safe use of guns. Gun training is usually directed at adolescents and adult, and involves teaching skills related to all aspects of owning, using and strong firearms.
v Treatment and rehabilitation services for perpetrators of violence. This category consists of interventions with perpetrators using individual cognitive behaviour therapy, group therapy or family therapy aimed at curbing conflict behaviour and reducing violent behaviour. Some interventions may link alcohol and substance misuse treatment with anger management skills. These interventions may be offered as part of a community programme or located within detention centre following conviction of violent offenders (Dunford, 2000).
v Treatment for the families of adolescents with conduct disorders. These interventions focus on parents, families, peers or partners to change parenting practices, the dynamic of the family environment, the dynamic of relationships, or the negative influence of peer interactions. Such interventions, may include training parents on family interactions, discipline and managing behaviour; family therapy aimed to restructure family relationships, and multisystemic therapy.
v Treatment of child abuse offenders. Child abuse offender interventions aim to reduce re- offending. Such interventions are usually provided for perpetrators during a period of detention, and may consist of individual or group psychological therapies. Cognitive behaviour interventions include improving social skills and modifying distorted cognition and beliefs. Sex hormones, anti-psychotic drugs, and surgical castration are among the interventions used to reduce re-offending (White et al., 2002)
v Treatment for adolescents with conduct disorders. Such interventions include education and skills training for adolescents on problem-solving, social skills, impulse control, assertiveness, sexual relationships, empathy, and perspective-taking.
v Triggering event. The motivation behind implementing the programme may have been an event (such as a murder involving a celebrity, a school shooting, or a high-profile rape incident), which acted as a trigger to mobilize the political, community and other stakeholder support needed to harness the necessary will and resources.
v Type and nature of interpersonal violence. Information on the type of violence identifies whether the programme deals with child abuse and neglect, intimate partner violence, elder abuse, acquaintance violence and stranger violence, and whether the violence is of a physical, sexual or psychological nature, or involving deprivation and neglect.
v Urban. Relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated area; located in or characteristic of a city or city life; Places of 2,500 or more persons in incorporated places (cities and towns).
v Victim. One who is harmed by or made to suffer from an act, circumstance, agency, or condition: victims of war.
v Violence. The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, development or deprivation (Krug et al., 2002).
v Violence Prevention Programme. A series of interrelated preventive activities, interventions or projects designed to reduce the level of interpersonal violence. The scope of the handbook is restricted to the identification and description of primary and secondary prevention programmes. How is the information presented?
v Workplace violence prevention. Refers to interventions aimed at preventing violence among and toward employee by linking violence prevention with organizational management and development. (Krug et al., 2002).